The purpose of the work is to study the influence of the features of the structure of dyes on the anthymicrobial activity of colored textile material. Based on the known properties of enzymes, phenolic compounds, dyes and textile material, the article described the properties of colored textile material. The paper considers three-component methods of protection of textile materials, as well as issues of influence of peculiarities of structure and chemical properties of phenolic compounds on protective properties of living organisms to action of microorganisms. It has been shown that their protective properties are due to the ability of phenolic compounds to inhibit the activity of proteolytic enzymes of microorganisms. The role of enzyme system in destruction of protein substrate and peculiarities of structure of active centers of enzymes of microorganisms is shown. The issues of appearance of resistance to action of mold mushrooms in painted textile material are considered. The mushroom resistance of textile material was determined according to the standard method. Dyeing with chromium dyes was carried out without chromium plating. The choice of preparations for antimicrobial finishing of textile materials was made based on their ability to form stable chelating cycles with metals - activators of microorganism enzymes. It has been suggested that the reason for mold resistance is the presence of a barrier on the outer surface of the product from groups capable of inhibiting the activity of enzymes. Which can be one of the criteria for choosing antimicrobial drugs. The obtained data are explained by peculiarities of geometrical structure of used compounds and their arrangement on textile material.