Industrial processes and technologies 2022-06-26T19:12:50+03:00 Журнал "Промышленные процессы и технологии" Open Journal Systems The current state of heat supply and its development 2022-02-21T02:05:29+03:00 Galina Rybkina Anna Yablokova <p>Heat supply is one of the most important branches of the Russian economy. The article discusses the current state and problems of the heat supply system, the main of which are a high percentage of wear, inefficient management apparatus, high tariffs and large consumer debt. The ways of solutions presented in the Energy Strategy of the Russian Federation for the period up to 2035 are also considered. The analysis of heat supply networks over time is given, a comparison of central and autonomous heat energy sources is given. Examples of autonomous energy complexes, such as roof boiler houses, block-modular installations and mini-CHP plants, are considered. Promising tasks for the modernization and improvement of the heat supply system and the formation of competition in the heat power industry have been identified. A forecast has been made for the upcoming necessary changes in this industry.</p> 2022-06-26T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Industrial processes and technologies Microwave installation for heat treatment of deformation seams of rigid airfield coatings 2022-06-03T00:49:40+03:00 Alexander Nedonoskov Olga Dornyak <p>One of the main types of defects of airfield coatings is the destruction of deformation seams. This defect is often caused by errors in the construction of coatings when the technology of sealing joints is violated. In addition, the intense mechanical impact of the pneumatics of the wheels of the landing gear of aircraft on the coating elements, especially on the start-finish sections of the runway (runway), also leads to a violation of the integrity of the deformation seams. It is known that in practice, the violation of the integrity of the sealant in the expansion joints occurs much earlier than the standard service life. The traditional technology used for the repair of airfield coatings does not provide for any preventive maintenance to restore the sealing properties of the seams, includes many long-term technological operations and is very costly. Therefore, the search for new repair technologies aimed at maintaining and restoring the original operational qualities and ensuring the constant operational readiness of airfield is an urgent task. In this paper, the design of a device for restoring the operational properties of deformation joints is considered and the technology of its application is described.</p> 2022-06-26T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Industrial processes and technologies The functional additives effect assessment on the properties of bar soap 2022-03-21T16:02:23+03:00 Anna Varvarycheva Sofia Sapegina Elena Karavaeva Anna Ruchkina Natalia Karataeva <p>Despite the wide range of hygiene and cleaning products, solid soap remains the most popular. In the conditions of constant improvement of the formulation and manufacturing process, enterprises use traditional and new functional ingredients. To prevent oxidative processes leading to the loss of consumer properties of solid soap, raw materials companies suggest using a variety of products, which are individual substances of synthetic and natural origin or mixtures thereof. The article presents new results of studying the stability of the characteristics of solid soap samples with various stabilizers during the warranty period of storage. The influence of vitamin antioxidants, complexing agents, antioxidants of complex action, phenolic type and plant extracts on the studied parameters was studied. The organoleptic and physico-chemical parameters of the initial samples, as well as samples after accelerated aging of soap from three types of shavings were determined: Children's, Ordinary and Household. To expand the raw material base and improve the consumer properties of the finished product, the possibility of using two new mineral complexes based on natural marble (INCI-name: Calcium Carbonate, Magnesium Carbonate) with an average particle size of 5.5 µm or 380 µm instead of titanium dioxide for white varieties of hard soap.</p> 2022-06-26T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Industrial processes and technologies Explosion-proof catalytic synthesis of hydroxylamine sulfate 2022-06-02T23:34:07+03:00 Arseniy Artemov Mikhail Dubanov Sergey Ardamakov <p>The conditions for the synthesis of hydroxylamine by reaction of hydrogen and nitric oxide in aqueous sulfuric acid in a cascade reactor system composed of three-phase mixing reactors in the presence of a platinum-on-electrographite catalyst, have been analyzed. The factors that provide the explosion safety of the process have been studied, such as pressure, H<sub>2</sub> : NO ratio, and N<sub>2</sub>O content in the gaseous synthesis products. The design of the reactors, which enables the explosion safety of the process, is described. An algorithm for the process control is proposed. Data on the composition of the gas phase mixture entering the reactors for hydroxylamine sulfate (HS) synthesis, the composition of the gaseous products of HS synthesis, along with the industrial scale HS synthesis conditions and outcomes are presented. The proposed solution for the control the catalytic synthesis of hydroxylamine sulfate makes it possible to a great extent simplify the process management by creating a simple and understandable algorithm together with maintaining an explosion-proof NO concentration in the synthesis gas. It also provides the opportunity to analyze the N<sub>2</sub>O content in the gaseous synthesis products, to evaluate the operation stability of the reactor unit and the necessity of the catalyst replacement and shutdown of the reactor system when required. Additional introduction of the required amount of nitric oxide directly into the cascade reactors without the contact with synthesis gas and hydrogen further improves the explosion safety of the entire process.</p> 2022-06-26T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Industrial processes and technologies Some epistemological problems of mathematical modeling of diesel fuel hydrotreating process 2022-06-02T23:45:43+03:00 Naum Samoilov <p>The article discusses the features of modeling a complex multicomponent process of hydrodesulfurization of diesel fuel. It is shown that the meaning of a number of parameters, in particular, the rate constants of hydrodesulfurization reactions used in mathematical modeling of diesel fuel hydrotreatment, does not correspond to the real laws of physico-chemical processes, while the proposed numerical values of these parameters are acceptable only for describing those specific processes in the course of which they were obtained. The concept of kinetic characteristics and modification of the calculation of the reaction rate constant are proposed.</p> 2022-06-26T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Industrial processes and technologies Development of an experimental stand for the study of continuous convective drying of textile materials under contact ultrasonic exposure 2022-06-02T23:55:37+03:00 Vladimir Khmelev Viktor Nesterov Maria Kosheleva Dmitry Genne Pavel Tertishnikov <p>The article describes the experimental stand and the results of preliminary experiments confirming the effectiveness of the use of contact ultrasonic exposure for convective drying of moving flat textile materials. In the developed stand, ultrasonic exposure is provided by an ultrasonic vibration emitter, which allows creating an amplitude of oscillations of the working tool of at least 70±5 μm at a frequency of 22 kHz over the entire contact area of the dried textile material with radiating surface of ultrasonic oscillatory system. The stand is equipped with the necessary measuring equipment that allows you to control the change in the mass of the dried fabric, the temperature of the drying agent, the speed of movement of the textile material. Drying of materials is provided by two types of energy effect: thermal (the drying agent is air) and ultrasonic. The studies carried out at the stand made it possible to establish that the use of contact ultrasonic exposure with an amplitude of oscillations of 70±5 μm in addition to the thermal (60°C) effect allows to reduce the drying time by 27% until the same moisture content is achieved (in the studied range of moisture content). At the same time, an increase in the speed of movement of the fabric from 0.07 to 0.28 m/s and, accordingly, the number of its broaches and contact with ultrasonic emitter, also allows you to reduce the drying time by 27% (in the studied moisture content range).</p> 2022-06-26T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Industrial processes and technologies Novel azo-compounds based on 2-cyanomethylene-4-thiazolidinone 2022-06-03T00:25:26+03:00 Yana Yanbarisova Islomjon Tursunov Nadezhda Polyanskaya Olga Kovalchukova <p>One of the derivatives of 4-thiazolidinone, namely 2-cyanomethylene-4-thiazolidinone, which, according to the literature data, has biological activity, was chosen as the object of research. The activity of this compound was studied in the azo-combination reactions.</p> <p>As a result of the experiment, three orange-brown compounds not described in the literature before were isolated with yields from 41% to 74% products of the azo combination of 2‑cyanomethylene-4-thiazolidinone with 3-aminopyridine, 1,3-dimethyl-2-phenyl-4-aminopyrazolone-5 and 1H-3-methyl-4-(4’-methoxy)-phenyl-5-aminopyrazole. The structure of the compounds is proved by spectral analysis methods. The acid-base equilibrium of the isolated compounds was studied by electron spectroscopy. It is shown that their neutral solutions are characterized by absorption bands in the region of 420–430 nm. When sodium hydroxide is added, the long-wave absorption bands undergo a shift to the region of large wavelengths, which is associated with a change in the tautomeric shape and an ionization of compounds. The method of computer screening indicates the low toxicity of the synthesized compounds and the possibility of their use as biologically active drugs.</p> 2022-06-26T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Industrial processes and technologies All-Russian competition "Engineer of the Year" and competition for the youth award "Hope of Russia" 2022-06-26T01:00:33+03:00 Sergey Drukarenko <p>The Russian and International Unions of Scientific and Engineering Public Associations (RosSNIO, NIO Union) set themselves the task of raising the status of the engineering profession in society, popularizing the achievements of engineering art, and attracting public attention to the problems of engineering in Russia. And a significant role in this is played by the All-Russian competition "Engineer of the Year" held by the Union of Research and Development every year since 2000 and since 2009 the competition for the youth award "Hope of Russia". The initiative to hold these annual reviews of the scientific and technical forces of the country was supported by the Government of the Russian Federation. By Decree of the Government of the Russian Federation of August 5, 2010 No. 602, the award was included in the list of the most prestigious awards for outstanding achievements in science and technology, education, culture, literature, art and the media, recognized in our state. In general, more than 70 thousand people from almost all regions of Russia take part in the competitions every year.</p> 2022-06-26T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Industrial processes and technologies Modeling the dispersion of pollutants in the surface layer of the atmosphere, taking into account the influence of buildings and terrain 2022-06-02T22:40:49+03:00 Олег Седляров Elena Borodina <p>Traditionally, the assessment of atmospheric air pollution is done on the basis of data on pipe heights, temperature, velocity, volume and specific properties of the ejected aerosol, corrected for the prevailing wind direction and other changes. The tolerances of this technique are very large: as a rule, these are average weather conditions and a single source. The dispersion of pollutants depends on the conditions of their emission, transfer and turbulent mixing. The paper considers the characteristics that affect the stability of the surface layers of the atmosphere and determine the processes of turbulent transport.</p> <p>In this paper, we propose a method for calculating the dispersion of pollutants in the surface layer of the atmosphere, based on the methods of computational fluid dynamics. The use of this technique makes it possible to take into account the influence of complex terrain and the nature of development. As an example of calculating the spread of pollutants, the paper considers the calculation of acetone emissions from a separate source located in the immediate vicinity of the building. The presented results of calculations clearly show the complex nature of the distribution of concentration fields in the immediate vicinity of buildings, as well as in conditions of dense buildings and complex terrain. Modeling such a complex distribution is practically impossible without the use of a powerful apparatus of computational fluid dynamics.</p> 2022-06-26T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Industrial processes and technologies