Industrial processes and technologies РГУ им. А.Н. Косыгина (кафедра ЭТПЭБ) en-US Industrial processes and technologies 2713-0789 Thermophysical properties of materials with nanosized metal particles <p>Influence of nanoscale particles located on surface on thermophysical properties of materials is considered. Analysis of heat exchange process under conditions of natural convection is given by example of samples of metal nanostructures formed on the basis of track membranes, which were used as templates or matrices. The obtained samples were metal foil, on the surface of which nanostructures were located, repeating the cylindrical shape of the pores of the original track membrane. It is shown that the presence of nanosized particles change the formulas for calculating the heat transfer coefficient of the surface. Thermal resistance of the heat carrier flow moving along the surface is added to the thermal resistance of the fixed film surrounding the nanoparticles. It is shown that corrections to the surface heat transfer coefficient depend on the Rayleigh number. The algorithm of calculation of corrections and the order of its application is presented.</p> T. V. Tsyganova S. S. Kruglikov Copyright (c) 2022 Industrial processes and technologies 2022-03-18 2022-03-18 2 1 78 86 10.37816/2713-0789-2022-2-1-78-86 Use of autonomous heat supply sources <p>The article discusses the issues of energy efficiency of various types of autonomous heat supply sources (AES) and comparison with centralized heating systems. A brief description of various types of AES is given and a review of their energy indicators is carried out on the example of high-rise and low-rise buildings using alternative energy sources (solar, wind and geothermal). Examples of the use of AES in countries with different climatic conditions are considered. Promising tasks for the integration of autonomous heat supply sources have been identified. In a favorable climate, solar panels, windmills and geothermal systems are able to fully supply low-rise buildings with heat. High-rise buildings, when using autonomous heat supply sources, significantly reduce utility costs, autonomous heat supply sources are able to provide up to 30% of the total energy needs of the building.</p> Oleg N. Makhov Polina S. Rybkina Ilya A. Budanov Copyright (c) 2022 Industrial processes and technologies 2022-03-18 2022-03-18 2 1 87 99 10.37816/2713-0789-2022-2-1-87-99 Determination of the stimulating effects of chitosan for sproutes of basic agricultural crops <p>The results of the study of the effect of chitosan solutions with a concentration of 0.005 to 0.2% on the morphophysiological and biometric parameters of plant seedlings are presented: wheat Triticum aestivum L. cv. Saratovskaya 29, sorghum sorghum cv. Volzhskoe, cucumbers Cucomerario cv. Golubchik, beans G, Phaséolus of the Franco-wagon variety, Písum peas of the Alpha variety.</p> <p>The stimulating effect of chitosan on the seedlings of the main agricultural crops has been established. The concentration dependence of the positive effect of treatment and watering of plants with chitosan solutions on biometric and morphophysiological parameters was revealed. An increase in germination and acceleration of the growth of cereal plants under laboratory conditions is achieved when treated with chitosan at concentrations: 0.01% for sorghum of the Volzhskoe variety, and 0.02% for wheat of the Saratovskaya-29 variety. For beans, a positive effect was achieved when treated with chitosan at concentrations: 0.005; 0.01; 0.02; 0.03; 0.05; 0.09; 0.2; 0.5% for vital indicators, germination and increase in the mass of beans of the Franco-wagon variety. The positive effect of chitosan on the vital characteristics of cucumber variety Golubchik was achieved at concentrations, %: 0.01; 0.05; 0.09 and 0.02 and 0.2% for the germination of Alfa peas.</p> O. A. Aref’eva L. N. Olshanskaya V. F. Abdullin Copyright (c) 2022 Industrial processes and technologies 2022-03-18 2022-03-18 2 1 6 14 10.37816/2713-0789-2022-2-1-6-14 The function of human vulnerability, taking into account the duration of the damaging factor <p>The article presents the results of studies to substantiate the vulnerability functions of a person in light clothes and without personal protective equipment, exposed to heat flows and (or) air temperatures. As experimental data, the published parameters of thermal effects are taken, leading to lesions of an unprotected person at various exposures. The available methods for assessing human vulnerability to the effects of thermal fields when used give large discrepancies when compared with experimental data, especially at initial and final values of temporary exposures, as well as at low and high values of the damaging factor. So, at low values of heat fluxes, the duration of their impact on the degree of damage to a person has little effect, and, conversely, at high values of the heat flux density, the effect of the duration of exposure increases many times over.</p> <p>In this regard, the problem of substantiating the functions of thermal (temperature) vulnerability of a person with a wide range of intensities of damaging factors and temporary exposures is relevant.</p> <p>In this work, the functions of human vulnerability under the influence of heat flows and the temperature of the gaseous medium surrounding a person are obtained, which make it possible to assess the damage to a person without protective equipment with a probability of 0%, 50% and 100%. Checking the results of calculations using the obtained mathematical dependences showed a high degree of convergence with the results of known experimental data.</p> Vladimir Akatev I. I. Zentsov Copyright (c) 2022 Industrial processes and technologies 2022-03-18 2022-03-18 2 1 15 28 10.37816/2713-0789-2022-2-1-15-28 Physicochemical and biochemical properties of metallic nanoparticles and their applications <p>A review of modern concepts of nanoobjects is carried out. Various aspects of the properties of nanosized particles and promising possibilities of using nanomaterials in many fields of science and technology are considered. It is shown that nanoobjects have unusual physical and chemical properties, as well as features of biological action, which differs from the properties of the same substance in a continuous phase. In the nanosized state, the specific surface area and chemical potential of substances at the interface increase. It is noted that much attention is paid to the functional activity of silver nanoparticles in terms of imparting both bactericidal and bacteriostatic properties to various materials and products. The use of silver in the form of nanoparticles makes it possible to reduce the concentration of silver by a factor of hundreds, while retaining all its bactericidal properties. Silver nanoparticles are used as a biocidal additive — in the form of a modifier, intended for the creation and production of new materials, coatings and other types of products with biocidal properties of a wide spectrum of action. The choice of silver nanocomposites for impregnating textiles is due to their significant and indisputable advantages over all existing antimicrobial agents, since silver compounds, having a wide spectrum of antimicrobial activity, are largely devoid of the disadvantages associated with the problem of resistance of pathogenic microorganisms to them.</p> L. I. Zolina K. O. Gracheva Copyright (c) 2022 Industrial processes and technologies 2022-03-18 2022-03-18 2 1 29 38 10.37816/2713-0789-2022-2-1-29-38 Prediction of coating uniformity during fluidized bed coating in a multistage apparatus <p>Coating of particulate materials prevents them from caking and provides a delayed release of the active substance. When thin polymer shells are applied, it is very important to determine the process parameters that ensure the coating uniformity. In this work the quality of the coating process was evaluated by the degree of coverage, which is equal to the fraction of the total surface area of the particles coated by the protective shell. The paper presents a mathematical model, which allows to predict the degree of coverage of particles in a multistage fluidized bed apparatus operated in the continuous mode. The process chamber of each stage was virtually divided into two compartments: drying zone and spraying zone. In the spraying zone the coating is formed, in the drying zone the film solidification and mixing of newly incoming particles takes place. An algorithm for the numerical solution of model equations for multistage apparatus was developed. The algorithm allows to calculate the particle distribution function by degree of coverage. Influence of the number of stages in the unit, flow rate of film-forming agent solution, flow rate of treated material and circulation speed of particles through the spraying zone on coating uniformity was shown. It was found that at the outlet of the four-stage apparatus practically all encapsulated particles have 100% degree of coverage.</p> A. G. Lipin A.A. Lipin Copyright (c) 2022 Industrial processes and technologies 2022-03-18 2022-03-18 2 1 39 49 10.37816/2713-0789-2022-2-1-39-49 The use of chitosan to impart antimicrobial activity to textile materials <div class="page" title="Page 13"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>In the current situation of the general pandemic, the article reviews and analyzes new developments and already existing technological solutions in the field of modification of textile materials by coating, with a pronounced antimicrobial effect. The advantages of the biodegradable polysaccharide chitosan, which has its own antibacterial activity, are considered in the article as an alternative compound used at the stage of final finishing of textile materials of different nature. The peculiarities of the influence of the cationic nature of natural organic polyelectrolyte solutions possessing a high charge density on the fields of its applications and properties have been studied. The factors causing the biological antimicrobial activity of chitosan, its ability to impart fungicidal, bacteriostatic, antifungal and anti-allergenic properties to textile materials have been analyzed. The analysis of the mechanism of microbes inhibition by chitosan due to electrostatic interaction of positively charged polysaccharide with negatively charged surface of many fungi and bacteria with their subsequent destruction is carried out. The prospects for using chitosan as an antimicrobial, anticoagulant, blood-stopping, antistatic and color-enhancing coating of textile materials based on different types of fibers are considered. In addition, the authors provide a number of research results in the field of imparting soft aseptic properties to textiles, reducing the risk of adverse toxic effects and reducing the ecological burden on the environment.</p> </div> </div> </div> Darya S. Kalugina Vailina Zakharova Nataliya R. Kildeeva Copyright (c) 2022 Industrial processes and technologies 2022-03-18 2022-03-18 2 1 50 65 10.37816/2713-0789-2022-2-1-50-65 Development of processes and technologies for obtaining powders and granules of microelements by spray drying and pelletizing on a plate granulator <p>Experimental data on the powders obtaining from solutions of microelements in chelate form on a spray dryer and the regime parameters of its operation are given. The spray dryer design is considered. The technological parameters of the drying process were determined for various combinations of liquid and drying agent consumption. The research results of the structure and granulometric composition of powders are obtained, and the conditions for the preservation of microelements in a complex form are determined. The transition mechanism of a solution drop into a hollow sphere during drying is presented. The process features of obtaining granular microelements in chelated form on mineral carriers are considered. Aqueous solution of copper chelate, mineral carriers (limestone, magnesium hydroxide and phosphate rock) were chosen as subject of research. The plate granulator design is given. It has been established that it is better to carry out granulation in dynamic mode on a plate granulator. The resulting granules have high strength, do not cake, and retain the complex of chelates during long-term storage.</p> V. I. Nazarov D. A. Makarenkov A. P. Popov Guzel R. Aflyatunova N. Y. Trubachev Copyright (c) 2022 Industrial processes and technologies 2022-03-18 2022-03-18 2 1 66 77 10.37816/2713-0789-2022-2-1-66-77